Private individual, in principle a natural person, to whom the parties submit a dispute which has already arisen or which may arise with a mandate to decide the dispute and who accepts this mandate. Unless the arbitration agreement provides otherwise, no restriction under French law limits the choice of the arbitrators by the parties except that they must be independent from the parties. Some national laws require that arbitrators be lawyers when they are deciding matters based on the law. Where more than one arbitrator (usually three arbitrators) together decide a dispute, they act together as an arbitral tribunal.